|2001-2012: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan|
In December 2001, the new Afghan government under Hamid Karzai was formed under the Bonn Agreement. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council to help assist the Karzai administration and provide basic security. US and Coalition forces continued to fight Taliban insurgents.
Since 2001, human rights concerns continue to undermine stability post-2001. Civilian deaths in Coalition air strikes, other collateral deaths and injuries caused by fighting between insurgents and Coalition forces, detainee interrogation practices, including torture, abuses of power by local leaders and corrupt local police militias have all characterized the Karzai years. With the resurgence of the Taliban and other anti-government forces like the Haqqani network have come new kinds of attacks, notably suicide bombings and high profile assassinations. More than eleven years after the initial US invasion, stability remains elusive in the war-torn country.